Explanatory glossary

3D Printer A computer-guided machine that prints three-dimensional objects based upon digital drawings. Layer upon layer are built up from powder or liquid material that ultimately hardens. It is a Rapid Manufacturing or Rapid Prototype Technology, ideal for making prototypes with complex and hollow forms and structures.

Added value This is the increasing of value that comes about with the transformation of raw and auxiliary materials into end products. This increase in value is a result, for example, of the labour performed. The added value expresses the essence of producing, namely, the addition of value to the goods.

AIDA model You can go through the AIDA model in order to get your story to the customer: attract Attention, generate Interest, incite Desire and move to Action.

B2B, or Business-to-Business Businesses that transact with other businesses. As a merchant, you sell your product through stores that in turn cater to individuals, for example. You yourself are not active on the private market.

B2C, or Business-to-Client Businesses that transact with customers. As a merchant you sell your products directly to individuals.

Circular economy The circular economy is an economic system that is intended for maximising the re-usage of products and raw materials and minimising value loss. This is different from the current linear system, in which raw materials are implemented into products that are destroyed after usage. The circular system consists of two types of cycles for materials: a biological cycle, in which surplus material is safely returned to nature after use; and a technical cycle, by which products and parts are designed and marketed so that they can be used or re-used again. Through this, the economic value is retained as much as possible. The system is thus seen as being ecologically and economically ‘restorative’.

Civil society or citizen society The citizen society, or the civil society, is the collection of organisations or institutes outside the sphere of government, the market and relationships of friends and families. People voluntarily constitute this society. In the ‘democratic triangle’ of Anton Zijderveld, the civil society is positioned next to the market (economy) and the state (government). The citizen society stands for the involvement of citizens with public affairs, increasing social self-government, the limiting of commercial influences and strengthening a sense of community and tolerance.

Co-creation Co-creation is a commercial strategy by which systems, products or services are created by means of collaboration between businesses and consumers. In this way, value is not only created by businesses, but through a joint effort of the client and the business. The customer is enabled to contribute to the realisation of a product.

Convention (for the safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage) In 2003, the Convention for the safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) was generated by UNESCO. The Convention is directed at the safeguarding or the transmission of ICH and is in agreement with the international conventions regarding human rights, complicit with the requirements for mutual respect between communities and sustainable development.

Cradle-to-cradle principle The cradle-to-cradle principle (C2C) stands for the reusage of products without a loss of quality and (damaging) surplus production. The term was coined by William McDonough and Michael Braungart in the book, Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things (2002), a manifesto for cradle-to-cradle design. Production that begins with the C2C principle divides materials into two categories. On the one hand, there are organic materials that degrade by themselves without being damaging to the environment (for example, bio-degradable packaging), and on the other hand, non-organic, synthetic materials (e.g. plastic or metal) that can be reused endlessly without a loss of quality and with an increase of value.

Creative Commons (License) (CC) The Creative Commons promote open content. By making use of the Creative Commons, works can be copied, distributed and adapted more easily than in the case of traditional copyrights. It offers various free licenses that copyright holders can use in order to prevent problems with disseminating information, which can occur in the current copyright legislation.

Crowdfunding Crowdfunding is a way to collect money for the realisation of various projects. Just as with crowdsourcing, different people provide a contribution in order to reach a specific goal. On a crowdfunding website – the most common platform for crowdfunding – a designer, for example can present an idea for a new creation and communicate what the necessary start-up capital for the production is. A large number of small(er) investors can then choose to support this project with a financial contribution. When the necessary amount is collected, the project can begin!

Crowdsourcing Via crowdsourcing organisations or individuals can make use of the knowledge and ideas of a large group of non-specified individuals, for example, in function of documentation, research, consultancy, innovation, policy forming, and so forth. Crowdsourcing generally runs through the Internet and allows for a great deal of input to be quickly collected. The bestknown example of crowdsourcing is Wikipedia.

Customising The adjusting or the making of products or services on the basis of personal specifications and preferences of the consumer (personalising).

Design thinking Design thinking stands for the totality of the thinking process during the design process. Thus, it is a design-specific manner of thinking. It presumes insight into the context, creativity in the generating of new insights and solutions, and the necessary rationality to analyse problems and to formulate appropriate solutions.

Elevator pitch The elevator pitch is a method of briefly presenting yourself, your project or product. The time that a lift needs to go to the top floor is the time you get in order to convince someone else of your story. The elevator pitch deals with the following aspects: who, what, where, why, how and what’s in it for the other person or the buyer? A successful elevator pitch does not only focus on facts, but appeals to the emotions as well. Here, the AIDA model can be of help.

Embodied Knowledge Embodied knowledge is the knowledge that is contained within the physical body of a person. The person knows and uses this knowledge, a specific use or skill, without thinking about it.

European Qualifications Framework (EQF) The European Qualifications Framework (EQF) is a translation tool that aids communication and comparison amongst qualifications systems in Europe. Its eight common European reference levels are described in terms of learning outcomes: knowledge, skills and competences. This allows any national qualifications systems, national qualifications frameworks (NQFs) and qualifications in Europe to relate to the EQF levels. Learners, graduates, providers and employers can use these levels to understand and compare qualifications awarded in different countries and by different educational and training systems.

FabLab FabLab stands for ‘Fabrication Laboratory’, an international network of open work places that invite people to get creative with high tech. The concept was conceived by Dr. Neil Gershenfeld, affiliated with MIT. With their computer-guided tools such as 3D printers and laser cutters, FabLabs are the habitat of creative designers and the breeding ground for innovative concepts for the industry. They are a means for experimenting with materials and techniques and to produce prototypes in a limited circulation. In Flanders, there are FabLabs in various cities (Ghent, Kortrijk, Leuven, Genk and so forth).

Greenwashing Greenwashing is a term that is used for companies that make use of ‘green marketing’ or ‘green PR’: marketing or PR strategies that create the perception that a certain product or policy is environmentally friendly, when in fact this is not the case.

Hacking Hacking is a term that originated from the context of computer programming. In order to abbreviate complicated procedures, programmers wrote a hack: a sort of trick or unexpected solution for a certain computer problem. Although the concept is often used in context of cybercrime – gaining illegal access or cracking computer systems by such hacks – the concept, in fact, stands for the finding of a creative new application for a certain product. A so-called life hack is then a simple, yet ingenious intervention for tackling a day-to-day problem. You hack something by using an object or adapting it to a manner that it actually was not conceived for, for example, using a hairclip to bind cables together.

Handmade washing A neologism analogous to greenwashing. It stands for a company or product that presents itself being more craft-related than it actually is.

Heritage community A group of people that place a special value on cultural heritage, that try to keep it alive by means of public action and that does its best to pass it along to future generations.

Immoveable heritage All heritage that is not portable, such as monuments, landscapes, archaeological sites and heraldry heritage.

Informal economy The part of the economy that is not registered by the official institutions and therefore remains ‘invisible’ in the statistics. Under the rubric of informal economy or hidden economy fall legal as well as illegal practices, for example, the carrying out of happenstance jobs, a service for friends, but also under the table work.

Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) All non-tangible heritage such as customs, uses, knowledge and practices from earlier times that a heritage community has inherited and attaches enough importance to, to pass along to future generations. Intangible cultural heritage is dynamic because it takes on new meanings and functions due to evolution over time and through interaction with the environment.

List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding This UNESCO list calls for attention to the intangible heritage that is threatened and is in danger of falling through the cracks of cultural history. Urgent safeguarding focuses at documenting and, when possible, making efforts for ensuring transmission, in order to preserve the necessary tracks and information onto which can be built upon in the future.

Living Human Treasures (LHT) A UNESCO programme that focuses on masters who possess exceptional knowledge and skills, and are pioneers in a special intangible cultural heritage tradition. Living Human Treasures can provide an important contribution to keeping traditions alive and thus also safeguarding them.

Maker movement The maker movement or maker culture is a modern culture in which the do-it-yourself person makes use of high-tech developments, such as robotics applications, electronics and 3D printers, for example, combined with more traditional do-it-yourself activities such as metal- or woodworking. The maker culture focuses on new and unique applications of technology and stands for creative discoveries and the development of prototypes. The makers meet each other, for example, at FabLabs, where they can hone their skills and sharpen the knowledge and share these (skills and knowledge) with each other.

Moveable cultural heritage All transportable heritage that is tangible such as heritage objects, documents and publications. Moveable cultural heritage is preserved in museums, archives, (heritage) libraries, documentation centres, churches and cloisters, within circles of regional experts, heritage associations, schools, theatres and so forth.

Networked production With networked production, designers, the industry and consumers work together on the developing and realising of new products, and knowledge, skills, tools and space are shared. Networked production departs from an idea that is picked up, adapted and improved by the network. This often leads to product innovation and a more flexible production customised for the consumer.

Open design Design in which the designers allow for free distribution and documentation. They share the blueprints and thus encourage the end users to make the objects themselves, to make adaptations, adjustments or improvements or to make variations. The Internet, digital technology and the worldwide network of FabLabs make all of this possible.

Participatory design Participatory design is a vision of design by which all (potential) stakeholders in the design process are involved. It is designing with consumers not for consumers. Participatory design plays upon needs and attempts to maximise the usability of the design. Participatory design not only refers to architecture or city planning, but also, for example, to software, graphic design and the designing of functional objects.

Peer-to-peer (P2P) The term ‘peer-to-peer’ network was originally used to designate a computer network in which all linked computers were equal. However, peer-to-peer can also be used in a broader sense and can be seen as the possibility to create value together and as equals within horizontal networks. The new information and communication technologies are facilitating this collaboration.

Pop-ups Pop-ups are temporary initiatives that pop up on the street scene. The best-known ones are pop-up stores that frequently establish themselves in a vacated space for a limited time (a day, a few weeks or months) and have an ephemeral and exclusive character. In addition, you can also have pop-up events, restaurants, bars and so on.

Register for programmes, projects or activities that best reflect the principles and objectives of the Convention This UNESCO register, also known as the Register of Best Safeguarding Practices, collects all initiatives with a strong exemplar function that transcend the local and can inspire others, in particular developing countries.

Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity The Representative List of UNESCO shows the great diversity of Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) in the world and thus also illustrates cultural diversity. Affiliated member states can nominate ICH elements. Due to the numerous requests, since 2012 a quota has been implemented and a ranking determined for dealing with the requests. The List must ensure the visibility and awareness of the importance of ICH and encourage (international) dialog and collaboration.

Safeguarding Providing a future by taking initiatives that ensure that the traditions are transmitted. Possible safeguarding measures are: identifying & documenting, researching, communicating & sensitising, transmission (transfer) and revitalising.

Service design A design technique connected with design thinking, a manner of thinking that the designer can apply to organisations and services and not just on the creation of products. The field of application: allotment of services for companies and public administration.

Short chain Short chain deals with the eliminating of intermediate links and whosesale distribution with the sales of products and the limiting of the kilometres travelled between the place of production and sales. In its most thorough form it deals with the direct sales by producers to the consumer. Producers thus determine themselves the supply and the price of their products.

Social design Social designers seek to approach social problems and questions, such as unemployment, isolation or climate change, by providing concrete or technical design solutions. Social de-sign is a design process by which a product or service is developed. It takes into account collective needs as well as the needs of the end users . The manner in which such a design comes to being can differ. Often, in social design the principles of co-creation or participatory design are applied.

Social economy Under the concept of social economy fall companies and initiatives that are not targeted at economic profit maximisation, but rather at the creating of social added value: employment for disadvantaged groups, for example, or environmentally friendly production. Charity shops and sheltered work places, though also initiatives such as green workers and public bicycle programmes fall under the rubric of social economy.

Sustainable design Whoever designs sustainably, designs buildings, spaces, objects or services according to the principles of social, economic and ecological sustainability. A negative impact on the environment is reduced as much as possible, for example, by only making use of renewable materials, the using of energy-efficient production processes, and the engagement in re-usage and recycling.

Sustainist design Sustainist design (from Michiel Schwarz and Joost Elffers in the book, Sustainism is the New Modernims: A Cultural Manifesto for the Sustainist Era from 2011) is a new paradigm in the design of products, services and processes. Sustainist design makes the connection between sustainable designing and designing with an eye towards social impact. Designing according to the principles of sustainist design means giving attention to sharing (collaboration, open exchange, commons), localism (community involvement, local experiences, roots), connect- edness (connectivity, mutual dependency, connections) and proportionality (commensurate, appropriate scale, human scale).

Symbolic (added) value The symbolic value of an object or experience is the capacity to convey symbolic messages and symbolic meanings. Symbolic value is an umbrella concept under which the following values are governed: the intrinsic aesthetic and historical value; the instrumental experiential value, educational value, spiritual value and identity; the emotional and cognitive value; and the societal value.

Time Banking Time Banking is an alternative economic model by which people exchange time and skills, instead of paying money for goods and services. With Time Banking, time – expressed in Time Bank hours – is the medium of exchange. In exchange for the offering of your skills to one person, you earn Time Bank hours, which you can exchange for services from another person from the Time Bank community.

Transition A transition is a structural societal change that is the result of developments that influence and reinforce each other in the areas of economy, culture, technology, institutions, nature and environment. Transition is thus a fundamental change in the system (for example, the food, energy or mobility systems), necessary for coping with problems such as climate change, energy shortages or population ageing. In order to address the challenges, small improvements are not enough, but a system change is necessary for the long term.

Transmission Transmission is one of the safeguarding measures for Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) targeted at the transference of practices, skills, knowledge and ideas to future generations. Different from education as a form of sensitising, by which ‘learning about’ is used as a flourish, transmission means effectively ‘learning to do’.

Triple-P principle The triple-P principle of John Elkington urges the harmonious relationship of People, Planet and Profit. According to this vision, a business is more than profit maximising for the short term, but is rather an actor who completely takes part in social life. The business makes up an inextricable part of it, ecologically (nature and environment), socially (well-being, prosperity and health of the people) and economically (financial).

Urban farming Urban farming is farming in or around the city. Urban farming can take on a variety of forms: from kitchen gardens to cultivating plants on a terrace to herb gardens on allotted grounds. Some urban farmers are hobbyists, but commercial initiatives can also fall under the term. Urban farming raises the involvement and knowledge of the food production and increases social cohesion and spatial quality of urban areas. There are also ecological and economic arguments for the cultivation of food products in and around cities, such as an increase of biodiversity and sustainable production without many intermediate links.

Urban knitting Urban knitting, or yarn bombing, is a form of street art, by which objects on the streets (trees, lampposts, benches, etc.) are covered, decorated, or spruced up with knitted or crocheted works. Often it is not only about the adornment of the street scene, but it also makes commentaries on certain problems in the public domain, or attracts attention to them.

Urgent safeguarding In the event that a certain ICH tradition is seriously threatened and its survival is in danger despite extra efforts that have already been made in the heritage community and in the country where the tradition stems from, urgent safeguarding is necessary. With urgent safeguarding, UNESCO and the international community work together in undertaking the necessary measures in order to combat its disappearing. Primarily, attention is given to the context that is required for the tradition to be able to survive.

User-centred, or human-centred design This is design that places humanity and its well-being central and seeks to improve it. It fits within the trend towards the growing importance of the consumer and his needs. User-centred design generates a win-win situation for the business and the client. Often the customer is consulted before beginning the design process.

USP, or Unique Selling Proposition/Point USP provides an answer to the question, ‘Why should I as customer buy from you and not from someone else?’ It identifies the unique and distinguishing characteristics of a service or product. Where do you offer exclusive value, but also advantages for the customer? Defining your USP is not simple. These questions can help you along the way: – What does your customer expect from your products or services? – Which qualities do you find unique about your business, product or service? – Which USPs can your competition not copy? – Which USPs does your competition use? – Which advantages do those qualities offer your customer?